JPAC Joint United Kingdom (UK) Blood Transfusion and Tissue Transplantation Services Professional Advisory Committee

14: Abbreviations and Glossary

Abbreviations

AABB

American Association of Blood Banks

ACD

anaemia of chronic disease

ACE

angiotensin-converting enzyme

ACS

acute coronary syndrome

AIDS

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

ANH

acute normovolaemic haemodilution

APTT

activated partial thromboplastin time

ASFA

American Society for Apheresis

ATD

adult therapeutic dose

ATLL

adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma

ATR

acute transfusion reaction

AUGIB

acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding

BCSH

British Committee for Standards in Haematology

BP

blood pressure

BSE

bovine spongioform encephalopathy

BSQR

Blood Safety and Quality Regulations

CJD

Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease

CKD

chronic kidney disease

CMV

cytomegalovirus

CPB

cardiopulmonary bypass

CPD

citrate phosphate dextrose

CPOE

computerised physician order entry

DAT

direct antiglobulin test

DHTR

delayed haemolytic transfusion reaction

DIC

disseminated intravascular coagulation

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

Epo

erythropoietin

ESA

erythropoiesis stimulating agent

FFP

fresh frozen plasma

FMH

feto-maternal haemorrhage

FNHTR

febrile non-haemolytic transfusion reaction

G-CSF

granulocyte colony stimulating factor

GvHD

graft-versus-host disease

HAM

HTLV I related myelopathy

HAS

human albumin solution

Hb

haemoglobin

HBsAg

hepatitis B surface antigen

HBV

hepatitis B virus

HCV

hepatitis C virus

HDFN

haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn

HHTR

hyperhaemolytic transfusion reaction

HIT

heparin-induced thrombocytopenia

HIV

human immunodeficiency virus

HLA

human leucocyte antigens

HNA

human neutrophil antigens

HPA

human platelet antigen

HPV

human parvovirus

HRQoL

health-related quality of life

HSC

haemopoietic stem cell

HTLV

human T-cell lymphotropic virus

IAT

indirect antiglobulin test

ICH

intracranial haemorrhage

ICS

intraoperative cell salvage

Ig

immunoglobulin

IM

intramuscular

INR

international normalised ratio

ITP

idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

IUT

intrauterine blood transfusion

IV

intravenous

JPAC

Joint UKBTS Professional Advisory Committee

LDH

lactate dehydrogenase

LMWH

low molecular weight heparin

MB

methylene blue

MCV

mean cell volume

MHRA

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency

MSBOS

maximum surgical blood ordering schedule

MSM

men who have sex with men

NAIT

neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia

NATA

Network for Advancement of Transfusion Alternatives

NHSBT

National Health Service (NHS) Blood and Transplant

NICE

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

NICU

neonatal intensive care unit

NPSA

National Patient Safety Agency

NSAIDs

non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

PAD

predeposit autologous donation

PAS

platelet additive solution

PBM

patient blood management

PCA

patient-controlled analgesia

PCC

prothrombin complex concentrate

PCS

postoperative cell salvage

PI

pathogen inactivation

PICC

peripherally inserted central catheter

PICU

paediatric intensive care unit

POCT

point of care testing

PT

prothrombin time

PTP

post-transfusion purpura

RAADP

routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis

RhD

RhD red cell antigen

RNA

ribonucleic acid

ROTEM

thromboelastometry

RR

respiratory rate

SABRE

Serious Adverse Blood Reactions and Events

SaBTO

Safety of Blood, Tissues and Organs

SAE

serious adverse event

SAG-M

saline, adenine, glucose and mannitol

SAR

serious adverse reaction

SCD

sickle cell disease

SD

solvent detergent

SHOT

Serious Hazards of Transfusion

SNBTS

Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service

SPC

Summary of Product Characteristics

TACO

transfusion-associated circulatory overload

TA-GvHD

transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease

TBI

traumatic brain injury

TCD

transcranial Doppler

TEG

thromboelastography

THPO

thrombopoietin

TPE

therapeutic plasma exchange

TRALI

transfusion-related acute lung injury

TRICC

Transfusion Requirements in Critical Care

TRIPICU

transfusion strategies for patients in pediatric intensive care units

TT

thrombin time

TTI

transfusion-transmitted infection

TTP

thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

UFH

unfractionated heparin

UKBTS

United Kingdom Blood Transfusion Services

UKCSAG

UK Cell Salvage Action Group

UKRC

UK Resuscitation Council

vCJD

variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease

vWF

von Willebrand factor

WHO

World Health Organization

WNV

West Nile Virus

 

Glossary

additive solution

Solution designed to maintain viability of cellular components during storage.

adult therapeutic dose (ATD)

Usually used in reference to platelet transfusions.
Refers to the amount usually transfused to an adult in a single dose.

allogeneic blood products

Blood and blood components collected from an individual and intended for transfusion to another individual, for use in medical devices or as starting material or raw material for manufacturing into medicinal products.

allogeneic donation

Blood donated by another person.

anti-D immunoglobulin

Human IgG preparation containing a high level of antibody to the RhD antigen.

apheresis

A process in which whole blood is collected from a donor and separated into components. Some of these are retained and the remainder is returned to the donor.

artificial colloid solutions

See colloid solutions.

autologous blood transfusion

Transfusion to an individual of blood collected from him- or herself.

blood component

A therapeutic constituent of human blood (red cells, white cells, platelets, plasma, cryoprecipitate).

blood establishment

Organisation responsible for any aspect of the collection and testing of human blood or blood components, whatever their intended purpose, and for their processing, storage and distribution when intended for transfusion. Excludes hospital blood banks (EU Directive 2002/98/EC definition).

blood product

Any therapeutic product derived from human whole blood or plasma donations.

bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)

A neurological disease of cattle which is generally thought to have caused the epidemic of vCJD in humans.

buffy coat

The granulocyte and platelet layer that forms between red cells and plasma when a pack of whole blood is centrifuged under suitable conditions.

citrate phosphate dextrose (CPD)

An anticoagulant used for the storage of donated blood.

colloid solutions

Gelatin, dextran, starch preparations (artificial colloids) that are used as plasma expanders.

cryoprecipitate

Precipitate produced after freezing and thawing fresh frozen plasma to precipitate high-molecular-weight proteins including Factor VIII and fibrinogen.

crystalloid solutions

Aqueous solutions of electrolytes, minerals or other water-soluble molecules for intravenous administration. Examples include physiological saline (0.9%) and Ringer’s lactate solution.

cytomegalovirus (CMV)

A type of herpes virus which is transmissible via transfusion and can cause infection in immunosuppressed patients.

direct antiglobulin test (DAT)

Also known as the direct Coombs’ test, it is a sensitive method to detect red-cell-bound antibody.

electronic issue

A safe and rapid method for issuing compatible blood. Compatible units are selected by laboratory computer without serological crossmatch.

epoetin

Approved name for recombinant human erythropoietin.

erythropoietin

A hormone produced by the kidney that stimulates red cell production by bone marrow.

fresh frozen plasma (FFP)

Plasma that is frozen within a specific time period after collection and stored in the frozen state until thawed for transfusion.

graft-versus-host disease (GvHD)

A serious condition in which allogeneic lymphocytes attack the tissues of the individual to whom they have been transplanted or transfused.

granulocytes

Phagocytic white blood cells. Therapeutic blood component can be produced by apheresis of a donor or from donor buffy coats. Efficacy is uncertain.

haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN)

A condition in which fetal red cells are destroyed by maternal antibody, usually anti-D.

haemovigilance

The systematic surveillance of adverse reactions and adverse events related to transfusion.

hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)

The presence or absence of this surface antigen is used to determine whether blood is infected with hepatitis B virus.

hospital blood bank

Any unit within a hospital which stores and distributes, and may perform compatibility tests on, blood and blood components exclusively for use within hospital facilities, including hospital-based transfusion activities.

human parvovirus B19

A non-enveloped virus transmissible by blood products. May cause transient red cell aplasia in haemolytic anaemias or hydrops fetalis in fetuses.

intraoperative cell salvage

The collection and re-infusion of blood spilt during surgery.

irradiated (blood component)

Cellular blood component treated with 25 gray (Gy) gamma or X irradiation to inactivate lymphocytes that could cause graft-versus-host disease in a recipient.

Kleihauer test

A method for counting fetal cells in maternal blood.

leucodepleted

Blood component from which white cells have been removed by filtration or another method.

massive transfusion

Variously defined as the replacement of one blood volume within 24 hours, or of 50% blood volume loss within 3 hours, or a rate of loss of 150 mL per minute in adults. In children it is usually defined as the loss of one blood volume within 24 hours, or 50% blood volume within 3 hours, or a rate of loss of 2–3 mL/kg per minute.

maximum surgical blood order schedule/surgical blood order
(MSBOS/SBO)

Schedule of the normal quantities of blood ordered by type of surgical procedure, set at hospital level.

methylene blue treated fresh frozen plasma (MB-FFP)

Pathogen-inactivated single donor component produced from imported plasma. Indicated for all patients born on or after 1 January 1996.

pathogen reduction

Additional manufacturing step in making blood products, validated to remove or substantially reduce infectivity for infectious agents. Includes light-activated chemicals (e.g. methylene blue, psoralens) and solvent detergent treatment. Some non-enveloped viruses may not be reliably inactivated by current methods.

plasma

The liquid portion of the blood in which the cells are suspended. Plasma may be separated from the cellular portion of a whole blood collection for therapeutic use as fresh frozen plasma or further processed to cryoprecipitate and cryoprecipitate-depleted plasma for transfusion. It may be used for the manufacture of medicinal products derived from human blood and human plasma, or used in the preparation of pooled platelets, or pooled leucocyte-depleted platelets. It may also be used for resuspension of red cell preparations for exchange transfusion or perinatal transfusion.

plasma derivative

Licensed pharmaceutical product containing partially purified human plasma protein for therapeutic use. Prepared from pooled human plasma under pharmaceutical manufacturing conditions, e.g. coagulation factors, immunoglobulins, albumin.

platelets, apheresis, leucocyte-depleted

A concentrated suspension of blood platelets, obtained by apheresis, from which leucocytes are removed.

platelets, recovered, pooled, leucocyte-depleted

A concentrated suspension of blood platelets, obtained by the processing of whole blood units and pooling the platelets from the units during or after separation, and from which leucocytes are removed.

postoperative cell salvage

Collection and re-infusion of blood from wound drains. Mainly used in orthopaedic surgery.

post-transfusion purpura (PTP)

Immunologically mediated thrombocytopenia following transfusion.

red cells

In this handbook, the term is used for any red cell component unless otherwise stated.

red cells in additive solution

The red cells from a single whole blood donation, with a large proportion of the plasma from the donation removed. A nutrient or preservative solution is added (e.g. SAG-M).

routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis (RAADP)

A programme established to further reduce the incidence of HDFN by administering one or two doses of anti-D Ig in late pregnancy.

saline

Sodium chloride intravenous infusion (0.9%).

serious adverse event

Any untoward occurrence associated with the collection, testing, processing, storage and distribution of blood or blood components that might lead to death or life-threatening, disabling or incapacitating conditions for patients or which results in, or prolongs, hospitalisation or morbidity.

serious adverse reaction

An unintended response in a donor or in a patient associated with the collection or transfusion of blood or blood components that is fatal, life-threatening, disabling, or which results in or prolongs hospitalisation or morbidity.

Serious Hazards of Transfusion (SHOT)

UK-wide reporting system for adverse transfusion events and ‘near misses’.

solvent detergent treated plasma (SD-FFP)

A commercially available pooled plasma product pathogen-inactivated by the solvent detergent method (Octaplas®)

thrombocytopenia

An abnormally low platelet count which may indicate a bleeding risk.

traceability

The facility to trace each individual unit of blood or blood component derived thereof from the donor to its final destination, whether this is a recipient, a manufacturer of medicinal products or disposal, and vice versa (European Commission Directives on haemovigilance/traceability).

tranexamic acid

An antifibrinolytic drug that reduces bleeding and mortality in traumatic haemorrhage and reduces transfusion in a range of surgical procedures.

transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GvHD)

A fatal complication of blood transfusion where allogeneic lymphocytes proliferate in the recipient causing severe marrow aplasia.

transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI)

Acute lung injury within 6 hours of a transfusion (non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema).

United Kingdom Blood Transfusion Services (UKBTS)

This comprises the NHS Blood and Transplant (NHSBT), the Northern Ireland Blood Transfusion Service (NIBTS), the Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service (SNBTS) and the Welsh Blood Service (WBS).

variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD)

A fatal disease which may be transmissible through prions transferred during transfusion of blood products from an infected donor. It is believed to be linked to BSE and affects much younger adults than CJD.

viral inactivation

See pathogen reduction.

whole blood

Blood collected from a donor before separation into red cells, platelets and plasma.